The Main Web Scraping Techniques: A Practical Guide

Last Updated

03/13/2023 20:12
Web Scraping - Shiftproxy


Web scraping is a powerful technique used to extract data from websites. It has been around for many years, but its popularity has increased exponentially over the last few years due to advances in technologies like artificial intelligence and machine learning. 

With web scraping, you can access data quickly and efficiently without having to manually copy and paste information from websites into spreadsheets or databases. This guide provides a comprehensive overview of the main web scraping techniques and tools available to help you start extracting your own data in no time.

Let us understand more about web scraping in detail.

What is Web Scraping?

Shiftproxy web scraping

Web scraping is a process of collecting data from websites through automated means. It involves using scripts or programs to extract large amounts of data from web pages and storing it in a structured format such as spreadsheets or databases. Web scraping can be used to get price information, compare products, gather contact information and create lead lists. It is commonly used by businesses to make informed decisions about their operations. 

Additionally, web scraping can help make the internet more accessible by gathering large datasets that are otherwise difficult to obtain. For example, web scrapers can be used to collect reviews and ratings, which can provide invaluable insight into consumer opinion on certain topics. By understanding what people think about a product or service, companies can adjust their strategies accordingly. Web scraping also helps to keep track of changes in the web, as well as monitor competitors’ activities.

Web scraping may involve using different programming languages, such as Python or JavaScript. These languages have specific libraries or modules dedicated to web scraping tasks, such as BeautifulSoup for Python and Cheerio for JavaScript. Additionally, graphical user interfaces (GUIs) can be employed for easy use by non-programmers. 

Regardless of the methods used, most web scrapers rely on some form of artificial intelligence - such as natural language processing (NLP) or machine learning (ML) - to make decisions on what information should be extracted from a web page. This type of intelligence ensures that the data gathered is more accurate and up-to-date than manual methods of collecting data.

Best Web Scraping Techniques

Manual Web Scraping:

Manual web scraping is the most fundamental method of data collection. It requires copying and pasting items into your dataset. While it is the simplest method for gathering information, it is tedious and time-consuming. Consider using automated scraping if you need large volumes of data. Websites focus their efforts on preventing large-scale automated scripts, thus one benefit of copying and pasting information manually is that you won't have to cope with the website's stringent requirements.

HTML Parsing:

Shiftproxy HTML parsing with beautifulsoup

When you wish to get data from a website, you must submit an HTTP request to the server, which responds with HTML. Yet, raw HTML is difficult to understand. This is when HTML parsing becomes relevant.

Parsing involves converting data into an easily-read format, such as JSON or CSV. There are several methods for parsing HTML, such as regular expression parsing. As HTML data is arranged in a tree form, it may be readily cleaned using path languages such as CSS and XPath.

CSS selectors are used to locate and style website nodes, so they may simply choose a group of HTML components based on their names. The elements may be targeted by class, attribute, type, or ID. All web scraping libraries like Selenium, Puppeteer, and Cheerio support CSS selectors. This approach is optimal for scraping just a few components from a page since you can only go from parent to child elements. The "inspect element" capability allows you to locate particular elements that have the required data.

XPath selectors, often known as XML paths, are a query language used to retrieve DOM components from XML and HTML-based documents. Similar to CSS selectors, XPath specifies the position of a certain element without requiring tedious iteration through element lists. XPath selectors may travel from the parent to the child and vice versa, allowing for more flexibility when dealing with less structured websites. With XPath, it is possible to scrape many pages simultaneously. Unfortunately, your scraper is more likely to fail than CSS selectors due to the fact that XPath is related to the page's structure, and site developers often alter HTML code.

JSON for Linking Data:

Web pages are composed of HTML tags that instruct a browser on how to render the information contained inside the tag. The HTML code is parsed by search engines to identify logical chunks. Unfortunately, they have limited comprehension; if the tag element does not include extra tags, Google, Bing, Yahoo, and other search engines will be unable to show your material effectively.

The JavaScript Object Notation for Linked Data (JSON-LD) tag organizes data for search engines and annotates page components. It is used by websites so that search engines may deliver more accurate results and enhance how they appear in SERPs. You may locate the JSON-LD (application/ld+json) tag behind the script> element in the head> section of a page and utilize it in your script to extract the data.

XHR Requests:

Social networking websites load their material dynamically using JavaScript pieces nestled among one another. The XMLHttpRequest object, or XHR, is a JavaScript API that enables a client to get dynamic data from a server without having to load the complete page. This ensures a seamless browsing experience.

Before, XHRs were only used with XML, but it now allows any kind of data, including JSON, the data format of choice for many current online applications.

Typically, XHR queries are started by JavaScript code running in a web browser, which sends a request for data to a server. The server then replies with the requested data, allowing the JavaScript code to dynamically update the page without reloading the full page.

XHR queries are often used to create live updates, search auto-completion, and endless scrolling. In addition, they may be utilized to submit form input without needing a complete page refresh.

Nevertheless, unscrupulous actors may use XHR requests to conduct cross-site scripting (XSS) attacks or steal user data. So, web developers must be cautious while using XHR requests and take precautions to protect their online applications from such assaults.

Reasons for Web Scraping

End-to-End Testing:

Web scraping is a valuable tool for testing websites and applications. Developers can use web scraping to build user testing scenarios or monitor website performance. Companies like Ip Label have built products that automate this type of testing using web scraping tools such as Selenium. This ensures that websites and applications are functioning as expected and can help to improve the user experience.

SEO Data Extraction:

Search engine optimization (SEO) is critical to driving traffic to a website. Web scraping tools such as SEMrush or Ubersuggest enable businesses to extract data such as competitors' SEO strategies, title tags, and keywords. This information helps businesses to optimize their own SEO strategies and improve their website's ranking on search engine results pages (SERPs).

Machine Learning and Large Datasets:

Machine learning is a technique used to build predictive models from large datasets. Web scraping is a valuable tool for data scientists looking to build large datasets for machine learning. Web scraping can help gather the large volume of data required to build accurate predictive models. Data scientists can scrape websites to extract data on house prices, competitor pricing, and stock market predictions.

Data Enrichment:

Data enrichment involves adding additional information to a database to improve its value. Web scraping can help businesses to enrich their databases by collecting data from a variety of sources. For example, a business may need to build a database for a new product or add search or product metrics from other platforms. Web scraping enables businesses to collect the data they need to enrich their databases and improve their products.

Market Analysis at Scale:

Web scraping can help businesses to analyze the market at scale. Businesses can use web scraping to collect data on competitors' pricing strategies, product offerings, and customer reviews. This information can help businesses to optimize their own pricing strategies and improve their product offerings. Web scraping tools can be used to collect data on specific websites that distributors use, enabling businesses to build an argument that is fed from the data they extract.

Brand Monitoring:

Brand monitoring involves tracking what customers are saying about a brand on social media platforms and other websites. Web scraping can help businesses to monitor their brand and track customer sentiment. By scraping reviews and ratings from multiple platforms, businesses can quickly respond to negative comments or reward customers who love their products. This can help improve a business's brand image and drive ROI.

Marketing Automation:

Marketing Automation - Shiftproxy

Web scraping can be used for marketing automation to build a sales machine. By scraping data from social media platforms such as Instagram, Twitter, or LinkedIn, businesses can find potential customers and automate their sales outreach. For example, businesses can extract a list of followers from a competitor's Instagram page and send them direct messages about their own products. This is a highly targeted approach that can improve the effectiveness of marketing campaigns.

Better Access to Company Data:

Web scraping can help businesses to access company data that is not publicly available. By scraping data from websites, businesses can gain valuable insights into their competitors' business strategies, products, and services. Web scraping can be used to extract data from government websites, industry-specific databases, or online directories. This information can be used to build a comprehensive database of businesses in a specific industry or region.


Web scraping is an invaluable tool for both entrepreneurs and researchers alike. It allows them to gather data from various sources on the internet quickly and easily. The main web scraping techniques discussed in this article are based on a few basic principles: HTML parsing, regular expressions, API calls, and crawling. Each of these techniques is useful in its own right and can be employed according to the particular needs of each project. 

When considering which technique or combination of techniques to use for a project, it is important to consider factors such as cost-effectiveness, accuracy, and speed of data extraction, potential risks associated with using certain methods (e.g., legal implications), scalability of the method over time, maintenance difficulty associated with certain techniques, etc. The choice of technique or combination of techniques will ultimately depend on the particular needs and objectives of the project. 

Finally, it is important to note that web scraping is not a static process but rather an ongoing task. As websites evolve and new technologies are introduced, web scraping must also adjust accordingly by adding more sophisticated methods for extracting data from various sources. Ultimately, with the right amount of research and proper implementation tactics, web scraping can be used to unlock valuable insights from the vast amounts of data available over the internet. 


Q: What are the main web scraping techniques?

A: The most common web scraping techniques include HTML parsing, screen scraping, API use, and other automated processes. Each approach has its own advantages and drawbacks depending on the needs of the user. 

Q: How do I choose which technique to use? 

A: Choosing a web scraping technique will depend on your specific requirements and goals. It is important to consider factors such as speed, accuracy, availability of data sources, difficulty in implementation, total cost, etc. when deciding which technique is best suited for your project. 

Q: What are some of the challenges associated with web scraping? 

A: Web scraping can be challenging because of website structure and design, data formats, and availability of data sources. Additionally, web scraping can also be affected by website changes, rate limits, legal issues, etc.

Q: What is the best way to store data from web scraping? 

A: The best way to store data gathered from web scraping depends on the format of the information collected. Generally speaking, it is best to use a database for structured data and file systems for unstructured data. However, this will depend on individual needs and requirements. 

Q: Is web scraping legal? 

A: Generally speaking, web scraping is considered legal as long as it does not violate any laws or breach a website's terms of service. However, it is important to be aware of the laws in your jurisdiction, as some countries have specific regulations regarding web scraping activities. Additionally, if you are using someone else's data for commercial purposes, you should make sure that you have permission from the owner before proceeding. 

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